What is the MID?

If you’re a clinician or researcher wanting to learn more about the diagnosis of pathological dissociation using an empirically validated and reliable instrument, then you’ve come to to the right place.

Most clinicians have received little or no training about dissociation and dissociative symptoms. This may lead them to fail to notice dissociative symptoms or to misclassify them in terms of a clinical diagnosis with which they are more familiar (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder, or psychosis). Questions about dissociative symptoms are absent from most standard clinical or psychological questionnaires and assessments. This makes the MID, a 218-item self-assessment an essential addition to clinical practice – especially when a clinician is serving client populations known to be at-risk for complex trauma. The MID is used by clinicians and researchers worldwide.

The MID, MID Analysis v4.0, and MID Interpretive Manual are free for use by trained mental health professionals and researchers seeking to better understand dissociation and dissociative processes from the experiencer’s point of view.

If you are a person concerned that they may be dealing with complex trauma or a dissociative disorder, then please consider seeking out a professional versed in the assessment and treatment of dissociation via the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation.

MID & MID Manual

This is the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation, or ‘MID’. Clinical use of the MID is incomplete without conducting an interview following administration and scoring.  Used in this way, the MID can most fully support clarity in diagnosis and treatment planning.

The MID is available in two versions: Adult (appropriate for those with a 7th grade or higher reading level, and available in a variety of languages) and adolescent (which uses less formal language).

All documents are in .pdf format unless otherwise noted. Choose your preferred format below:

MID – Adult Version (English)

The ‘Original’ version of the current iteration of the MID first appeared in Appendix 3 of the book Rebuilding Shattered Lives, Second Edition (Chu, 2011) with an introduction that would not be necessary for a test-taker to read. It is included here for archival and informational purposes.

The ‘Reformatted’ version does not contain all of the introductory text that the ‘Original’ version does, but it still requires that the test-taker circle their responses to each question.

The MS Word version resembles the Questions tab on MID Analysis and allows for handwritten number, rather than circled, responses. This version tends to allow for easier transfer to the MID Analysis Questions worksheet. PLEASE NOTE: If you are browsing via a PC or a mobile device, you must ‘Save as…’, then open this document via MS Word (or other word processing program) to enter data, rather than simply opening it via the site and entering data directly into it. Otherwise, you risk losing the data you’ve entered.

MID – Adult Version (Non-English*)

*To date, only the English and Hebrew MIDs are validated/normed. All other versions are offered here for your convenience.

MID – Adolescent Version

Adolescent MID (English)

An Interpretive Manual for the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation, 2nd Edition

The Interpretive Manual is designed both to provide basic instructions for administering and scoring the MID and to address most questions clinicians and researchers may have about what the items, scales, etc., mean. New and seasoned professionals will benefit from reading this manual and applying informed interpretation of each client’s scores to identify which items and scales to clarify in the follow-up interview.  It is an essential resource in learning how to use the MID and MID Analysis.

Please be aware that the Interpretive Manual is a large file, so it may take a few moments to download/fully load in your browser.

Request MID Analysis

To obtain a copy of MID Analysis v4.0, please complete the form below with all requested information. You will receive a prompt follow-up message via email with information to access the MID Analysis v4.0.


If you've already requested MID Analysis v4.0 but you've not yet received the email with the access link and password, please check your 'spam' folder before re-submitting your request. If you still haven't seen it, submit your request via this form. If you don't receive it on the second attempt, please click here to contact the webmaster for assistance.

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Terms and Conditions:
The MID and MID Analysis are intended for the exclusive use of clinicians and researchers. To obtain a copy of MID Analysis v4.0, you must be one or both of these, and your intention must be to use MID Analysis for diagnostic or research purposes. You are responsible for your use of the MID and MID Analysis, and agree to hold the authors of the MID, MID Analysis, and related documents free from liability.

By entering my name below, I attest that I am a clinician and/or researcher, and that I understand and agree to the terms of use described above.

MID Consultation

The MID Analysis v4.0 is a complex tool, and, although the Interpretive Manual is extensively explanatory, it can take time and practice to learn the nuances and levels of interpretation possible in using the MID.

Two of the authors of the MID Interpretive Manual, 2nd Edition, offer reasonably priced consultation on the intricacies of the MID Analysis v4.0. See below for background information for each of them before deciding whom to consult.

D. Michael Coy is a Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker in private practice in Seattle, Washington. Michael spearheaded the overhaul of the MID Analysis from v3.8 to v4.0, and collaborated with Jennifer Madere and MID developer Paul Dell, PhD (who generously served as editor) on expanding the original Mini-Manual into the full Manual available elsewhere on this site. He has offered consultation on the use of the MID since 2015.

Michael has served clients in a variety of settings over the past thirteen years, working with homeless persons; severely abused and neglected youth and HIV+ adults in different residential treatment facilities; children, adolescents, adults, and older adults in an inpatient psychiatric facility; adults with mental health disabilities in a psychiatric nursing home; and LGBTQ adults in recovery in a community health center substance use treatment program, prior to moving into full-time private practice in 2013.

Michael’s foundational learning was in psychodynamic theory. In 2011, he trained in EMDR therapy through the EMDR Institute; he has been an EMDRIA Approved Consultant in EMDR therapy since 2015. Michael also has training in clinical hypnosis, Ego State Therapy, and Sensorimotor Psychotherapy (Level I).

Michael’s clinical practice focuses on working with people across the dissociative spectrum dealing with interwoven issues such as addictions, compulsions, and self-harming behaviors. Additionally, Michael employs an integrative treatment model to address pre-verbal and early attachment trauma in a brief intensive format.

Michael will co-present with Jennifer Madere on the MID Analysis v4.0 at EMDRIA’s 2017 Annual Conference in Bellevue, WA. Michael presented at ISSTD’s 2016 Annual Conference, along with Ulrich Lanius, PhD, and Sandra Paulsen, PhD, on the assessment and treatment of dissociative disorders. He has served as guest lecturer on EMDR therapy in 2014 and again in 2015 in University of Illinois at Chicago’s social work program, and presented on EMDR therapy for the Washington State Society for Clinical Social Work in early 2017.

Michael has been  a member of the Board of Directors for the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD) since January 2017, serving on the Communications & Marketing and Finance Committees, as well as chairing the Website Committee. Additionally, Michael created and is co-chairing a task group to develop a dissociation-sensitive EMDR therapy ‘basic’ training under the ISSTD umbrella. Michael previously served as a member of EMDRIA’s Standard s& Training Committee from 2014 to 2017.

Jennifer Madere is a Licensed Professional Counselor Supervisor in private practice, and founding partner of Intuitus Group Counseling Clinic, PLLC & Independent Professionals in Cedar Park, Texas.

Having worked with child and adult survivors of trauma on their journey of healing since 2003, she worked in residential treatment, shelter, hotline, and community mental health settings before beginning private practice in 2008. As she better understood the needs of her clients, Jennifer sought EMDR therapy training in 2010, and attended the ISSTD Annual Conference for the first time in 2012.

Within her therapy and consultation practice, Jennifer began to see a need for more consistent and thorough assessment of trauma-related symptoms and client history to inform safe and effective treatment.  This led to her gathering data to compare ACES (Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale) and DES (Dissociative Experience Scale) scores, and presenting these findings at the EMDRIA Annual Conference in 2014.

Concurrently, Jennifer began using the MID in her therapy and consultation practice. With the encouragement of independent EMDRIA approved trainer, Rick Levinson, LCSW, Jennifer began teaching other clinicians in Central Texas to recognize and assess symptoms of pathological dissociation.  In June of 2014, Jennifer began offering a workshop entitled Assessing Complex Trauma and Dissociative Disorders for EMDR Clinicians: What to do after the DES within Weekend 2 of Rick Levinson’s EMDR therapy training.  Increasingly aware of the need and appreciation for the MID by clinicians utilizing EMDR therapy, Jennifer sought and obtained permission from Paul Dell to present on the MID during the EMDRIA Annual Conference in 2015.

Articles & References

For those who may need to cite the MID for any reason, its correct citation is:

Dell, P. F. (2006). The Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID): A Comprehensive measure of pathological dissociation. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 7(2), 77-106.

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MID-Related Publications

Current as of 3-24-2017. To download a copy of these references in .pdf format,  please press/click here.

1. Dell, P.F. (2001). Should the dissociative disorders field choose its own diagnostic criteria for dissociative identity disorder? Reply to Cardeña, Coons, Putnam, Spiegel, and Steinberg. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 2(1), 65-72.

2. Dell, P. F. (2002). Dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190(1), 10-15.

3. Gast, U. (2002). Komplexe Dissoziative Störungen. Konzeptionelle Untersuchung zur Diagnostik und Behandlung der Dissoziativen Identitätsstörung und ähnlicher Erkrankungen. Habilitationsschrift, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover.

4. Howley, J., & Ross, C. A. (2003). The structure of dissociative fugue: A case report. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 4(4), 109-124.

5. Schmidt, S. J. (2004) Developmental needs meeting strategy: A new treatment approach applied to dissociative identity disorder. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 5(4), 55-78.

6. Somer, E., Soref, E., & Lawental, E. (2004). Dissociative disorders among substance use disorder patients: A research report. Jerusalem: The Israel Anti-drug Authority. [In Hebrew].

7. Somer, E., & Dell, P.F. (2005). Development of the Hebrew Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (H-MID): A valid and reliable measure of pathological dissociation. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 6(1), 31-53.

8. Dell, P.F. (2006). A new model of dissociative identity disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 29(1), 1-26.

9. Dell, P.F. (2006). The Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID): A comprehensive measure of pathological dissociation. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 7(2), 77-106.

10. Cooper, B. S., Cuttler, C., Dell, P., & Yuille, J. C. (2006). Dissociation and amnesia: A study with male offenders. International Journal of Forensic Psychology, 1(3), 69-83.

11. Schmidt, S. J., & Hernandez,   (2007). The Developmental Needs Meeting Strategy: Eight Case Studies. Traumatology,13: 27-48

12. Lautenberg, D., Somer, E., Dell, P., & VonDeylen, H. (2008). Abuse history and pathological dissociation among Israeli and American college students: A comparative study. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 9(1), 51-62.

13. Korzekwa, M., Dell, P. F., Link, P. S., Webb, S. P., & Thabane, L. (2008). Estimating the prevalence of borderline personality disorder in psychiatric outpatients using a two-phase procedure. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 49(4), 380-386.

14. Dell, P.F. (2009). The phenomena of pathological dissociation. In P. F. Dell, & J. A. O’Neil (Eds.), Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM-V and beyond (pp. 225-238). New York: Routledge.

15. Dell, P.F. (2009). The long struggle to diagnose multiple personality disorder. I. Multiple personality disorder. In P. F. Dell, & J. A. O’Neil (Eds.), Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM-V and beyond (pp. 383-402). New York: Routledge.

16. Dell, P.F. (2009). The long struggle to diagnose multiple personality disorder (MPD). II. Partial MPD. In P. F. Dell, & J. A. O’Neil (Eds.), Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM-V and beyond (pp. 403-428). New York: Routledge.

17. Dell, P.F. & Lawson, D. (2009). Empirically delineating the domain of pathological dissociation. In P. F. Dell, & J. A. O’Neil (Eds.), Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM-V and beyond (pp. 667-692). New York: Routledge.

18. Korzekwa, M. I., Dell, P. F., Link, P. S., Thabane, L., & Fougere, P. (2009).  Dissociation in borderline personality disorder: A detailed look. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 10, 346-367.

19. Korzekwa, M. I., Dell, P. F., & Pain, C. (2009). Dissociation and borderline personality disorder: An update for clinicians. Current Psychiatry Reports, 11, 82-88.

20. Korzekwa, M. I., & Dell, P. F. (2010). Dissociation in borderline personality disorder. In A. Widera-Wysczańska & A. Kuczyńska (Eds.), Interpersonal trauma and its consequences in adulthood (pp. 99-112). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

21. Somer, E., Altus, L., & Ginzburg, K. (2010). Dissociative psychopathology among opioid use disorder patients: Exploring the “chemical dissociation” hypothesis. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51, 419-425.

22. Rodewald, F., Dell, P. F., Wilhelm-Gossling, C., & Gast, U. (2011). Are major dissociative disorders characterized by a qualitatively different kind of dissociation? Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 12, 9-24.

23. Laddis, A., & Dell, P. F. (2012). Dissociation and psychosis in DID and schizophrenia. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 13(4), 397-413.

24. Laddis, A., & Dell, P. F. (2012). All that dissociation instruments measure is not dissociation: “All that glistens is not gold.” Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 13(4), 418-420.

25. Dell, P. F. (2013). Three dimensions of dissociative amnesia. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 14(1), 25-39.

26. Wabnitz, P., Gast, U., & Catani, C. (2013). Differences in trauma history and psychopathology between PTSD patients with and without co-occurring dissociative disorders. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4, 21452 – http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/ejpt.v4i0.21452.

27. Mueller-Pfeiffer, C., Schick, M., Schulte-Vels, T., O’Gorman, R., Michels, L., Martin-Soelch, C., Blair, J. B., Rufer, M., Schnyde, U., Zeffiro, T., & Hasler, G. (2013). Atypical visual processing in posttraumatic stress disorder.  NeuroImage: Clinical, 3, 531-538.

28. Mueller-Pfeiffer, C., & Wittmann, L. (2013). Preliminary investigation of the reliability and validity of the German version of the State Scale of Dissociation (SSD). Journal of Traumatic Stress Disorders and Treatment, 2:2.

29. Mueller-Pfeiffer, C., Rufibach, K., Wyss, D., Peon, N., Pitman, R. K., & Rufer, M. (2013). Screening for dissociative disorders in psychiatric out- and day care-patients. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35(4), 592-602.

30. Frewen, P. A., Brown, M. F. D., Steuwe, C., & Lanius, R. A. (2015).  Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6, 26406.

31. Laddis, A., Dell, P. F., & Korzekwa, M. (2017). Comparing the symptoms and mechanisms of “dissociation” in dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 18(2), 139-173.

32. Kruger, C., & Fletcher, L. (2017 in press). Predicting a dissociative disorder from type of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational tie. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation,